G-AP Development & Evidence

The G-AP framework has been developed to be – theoretically sound, evidence based and practical to use.

A programme of research has been undertaken to develop the G-AP framework.

This has included:

  • A review of the rehabilitation and self-management literature¹ to identify relevant theories
  • A mapping exercise² to link identified theories with key stages of the G-AP process
  • Two evaluations of G-AP3,4,5 in community rehabilitation settings to find out if it was acceptable to staff and people in their care, feasible to implement in practice and helpful in the setting and pursuit of person centred goals
  • A survey6 to find out what ‘usual’ goal setting practice looks like in the UK
  • A literature review7 to find out about accessible goal setting practice for people with aphasia
  • A co-production project8 with people with aphasia to develop and accessible G-AP record
  • A multi-national survey9 to find out about ‘usual’ goal setting practice with people with aphasia and what staff training needs are
  • A scoping review10 to understand the role of goal adjustment in people with long term conditions

Useful References


Scobbie, L. Wyke, S., Dixon, D. (2009) Identifying and applying psychological theory to setting and achieving rehabilitation goals. Clinical Rehabilitation; 23:231-333. DOI: 10.1177/0269215509102981.
Access via: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19293291/


Scobbie, L., Wyke, S., Dixon, D. (2011) Goal setting and action planning in clinical rehabilitation: Development of a theoretically informed practice framework. Clinical Rehabilitation; 25(5) 468–482. DOI: 10.1177/0269215510389198.
Access via: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269215510389198


Scobbie, L., McLean, D., Dixon, D. et al. (2013) Implementing a framework for goal setting in community based stroke rehabilitation: a process evaluation. BMC Health Serv Res 13, 190.
Access via: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-190


Scobbie, L. et al. (2020) Goal attainment, adjustment and disengagement in the first year after stroke: A qualitative study, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/09602011.2020.1724803
Access via: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09602011.2020.1724803


Scobbie, L., Duncan, E.A.S., Brady, M.C. et al. (2020) Facilitators and “deal breakers”: a mixed methods study investigating implementation of the Goal setting and action planning (G-AP) framework in community rehabilitation teams. BMC Health Serv Res 20, 791.
Access via: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05651-2


Scobbie, L. et al. (2015) Goal setting practice in services delivering community-based stroke rehabilitation: a United Kingdom (UK) wide survey, Disability and Rehabilitation, 37:14, 1291-1298, DOI: 10.3109/09638288.2014.961652
Access via: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/09638288.2014.961652


Brown, SE. et al (2020) A narrative review of communication accessibility for people with aphasia and implications for multi-disciplinary goal setting after stroke, Aphasiology, DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2020.1759269
Access via: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02687038.2020.1759269?journalCode=paph20


Sophie Eleanor Brown, Lesley Scobbie, Linda Worrall, Ruth Mc Menamin & Marian C. Brady (2022) Access G-AP: development of an accessible goal setting and action planning resource for stroke survivors with aphasia, Disability and Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2022.2085331 Access via: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09638288.2022.2085331


Sophie Eleanor Brown, Lesley Scobbie, Linda Worrall & Marian C. Brady (2022) A multinational online survey of the goal setting practice of rehabilitation staff with stroke survivors with aphasia, Aphasiology, DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2022.2031861. Access via: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02687038.2022.2031861


Scobbie L. et al. (2020) Goal adjustment by people living with long-term conditions: a scoping review of literature published from January 2007 to June 2018. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 31:8, 1314-1345, DOI: 10.1080/09602011.2020.1774397
Access via: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09602011.2020.1774397